Friday, July 31, 2020
Impound: Can I Get My Car Back If I File Bankruptcy?
The following question has been posed to the Supreme Court of the United States in City Of Chicago v. Robbin L.Fulton, et. al.:
Whether an entity that is passively retaining possession of property in which a bankruptcy estate has an interest has an affirmative obligation under the Bankruptcy Code’s automatic stay, 11 U.S.C § 362, to return that property to the debtor or trustee immediately up-on the filing of the bankruptcy petition.
A filed bankruptcy petition does 2 things. First, it creates a bankruptcy estate which holds all of the debtor's rights to property, or as the bankruptcy code states, all legal or equitable interests in property. Secondly, an automatic stay automatically operates to automatically stop creditors from collecting debts. including “any act … to exercise control over property of the estate,” referring to the bankruptcy estate. Because this automatically operates, it does not require a court order, and a creditor violating this stay provision may be subject to sanctions.
However, there is a competing code provision providing turnover of property of the bankruptcy estate requires a court order, and is not operate automatically like the automatic stay. An action call an adversarial proceeding has to be filed with the Court requesting the turnover of property. This allows for the debtor to provide a defense. The creditor can also be sanctioned, but only after the Court has ruled.
The Courts are divided. There are five courts of appeals—the Second, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and Eleventh Circuits—align with the first position of the automatic stay imposing a duty to automatically turn over property, while the Tenth and District of Columbia align with the second position of requiring a court order.
In this case, the City of Chicago lawfully impounded a vehicle because of unpaid fines and penalties after the debtor was caught driving on a suspended license. When the city initially filed its claim, it was filed as unsecured, then amended after confirmation of the Chapter 13 Plan to reflect a secured claim.
So, the question before the Court is fairly straight forward; when must turnover occur? Immediately upon the filing of the bankruptcy petition, or after an adversarial proceeding?
Status of case: Currently awaiting the Court's decision as to whether to it will grant the petition for writ of certiorari.